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How to Determine the Salinity From Conductivity

The equation of state that converts conductivity to salinity along with the definition of all its terms takes up two pages in a UNESCO PDF (see References). Fortunately, several sites have converted this formula into online calculators. The main stumbling block remaining is merely to get your measur

How to Calculate Weight for Buoyancy

The buoyant force is what keeps boats and other floating objects from sinking. An object placed in water causes the water level to rise an amount equal to the volume of the object below the surface. Archimedes' principle states that the weight of the water moved by the presence of the object equals

How to Make a Draw Knife

This simple but effective design for a drawknife is reminiscent of the pioneer days, when scrap stock such as old barrel hoops and wagon-wheel rims were hammered flat and made into tools for use on the homestead. This type of drawknife was used to strip bark off trunks for fence posts, and to square

How to Calculate Water Density Using the PPM of Cl

PPM stands for parts per million and is a measure of the mass of one substance in a volume of another substance. PPM can have actual units of milligrams per liter. Density is a mass per volume measurement. A mixed density takes into account the fractional composition of each component in a mixture.

Nature Tours in Conroe, Texas

Lakelake in pure nature image by .shock from Fotolia.comConroe, Texas, offers plenty of opportunities to take a tour of its land and beautiful body of water, Lake Conroe. Some of the tours are self-guided and some are guided by a paid professional. Conroe is home to diverse tree and bird...

How to Build Catapults

A catapult is a machine used to hurl objects. Catapult is derived from the Greek "kata", which means downward, and "pultos", which is a small shield. The word katapultos is translated as "shield piercer." The catapult was invented in Syracus, Greece circa 400 B.C. Catapults are powered by torsion, t

How to Have Teamwork in Softball

There are two approaches to recreational softball, whether you play on a men's, women's or coed squad. One of them works; the other doesn't. The one that doesn't is the one that an unfortunate plurality of teams employ: compile a roster of miscellaneous non-connected friends and co-workers, give th

Types of Molecules Present in Macromolecules

Macromolecules are polymers composed of many different subunits; the subunits are all linked together in a huge chain to make a bigger molecule. Biological macromolecules like DNA, RNA, carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are integral to life on Earth. Different subunits are used to construct each of

What Kind of Sand is Used for Sandboxes?

It is a relatively simple task to pick up a bag of sand from the local home improvement store, take it home and fill a child's sandbox. But there are a few things you need to realize before purchasing the sand.

Which Liquids Clean a Penny Faster?

Over time, pennies become dull, dirty and somewhat disgusting. Penny collectors only want clean pennies in their collections, and it can be enjoyable for children to clean pennies as well. Sometimes it is necessary to clean pennies because they are so dirty as to be unusable. Many penny-cleaning for

How to Make Fiberglass Headliners

A car's headliner is the piece of board attached to the ceiling of the vehicle that separates the interior ceiling from the roof itself. A headliner is typically covered in fabric or carpeting that matches the rest of the interior. One after-market upgrade that you can make to a vehicle is to switch

How to Recycle Glass Jars

The "go green" movement has rapidly spread throughout communities around the world. However, many families don't recycle simply because they don't know the proper way to dispose of certain items. Glass jars are among the most common items overlooked because there's confusion surrounding what kind of

What Are the Negatives of Windmills?

Windmills can be large and loud.Paul Edmondson/Photodisc/Getty ImagesWindmills are devices designed to generate electricity without using oil, gas or other fossil fuels, according to Clean Energy Ideas. Natural wind power causes turbines to spin, thus powering cable systems that are...

About Nanotechnology & Dentistry

Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on the molecular and atomic levels. Current development is limited to the creation of nano-scale objects for use as materials in other technology. Material engineered using nanotechnology is often more precise and durable because of certain properties of

About Wildlife Preservation for Endangered Animals

The Word Animal Foundation estimates that by the year 2025 one fifth of the world's animal species may be extinct. Hundreds of species are already gone, due in large part to human intrusion into their habitat. Logging, urban expansion, pollution of water and soil and mismanaged fishing and hunting h

How to Find Distances Between Two Areas

Although your GPS may use complicated algorithms to get you from your office to your grandmother's house there still exist some simple ways to find the distance between two areas. A Greek mathematician named Pythagoras determined that the distance between any two points could be found by using the g

How to Use a Vibrator for Polishing Rocks

There are two common types of rock polishers, rotating tumblers and vibrating tumblers. Rotating tumblers take four to five weeks and produce smooth, rounded rocks. Vibrating tumblers take only a week and a half to two weeks and produce highly polished rocks that retain much of their original geolog